Every firm has two strategies, we learn early on in the pages of One Strategy: Organization, Planning, and Decision Making. "Explicit" strategy is the one you read about in your company's planning memos and PowerPoint slides. The second, "implicit" strategy, is what emerges when middle managers and line employees attempt to execute the explicit strategy.
Unfortunately, these strategies often diverge. They are not aligned. And so the potential of the enterprise becomes unrealized. "Strategy therefore becomes the product of the firm's incentives, structures, and patterns of behavior, not the other way around," writes Harvard Business School professor Marco Iansiti, an expert on innovation, entrepreneurship, and operations.